Posts Tagged ‘Memorial Day’

A Time to Remember…Memorial Day

And now for something completely different... | Posted by Rebekah
May 23 2015
The Manila Cemetery, where the American War dead of the Pacific rest, and where those lost and not recovered are remembered on the "Tablets of the Missing"

The Manila Cemetery, where the American War dead of the Pacific rest, and where those lost and not recovered are remembered on the “Tablets of the Missing”


As we pause for a few moments this weekend to remember those who laid down their private civilian lives to take up arms, then never came home, let’s remember…

Each of those men and women had parents.

Some had siblings.

Some had spouses or fiances or other loved ones

Some had children.

Some had aunts and uncles and cousins.





Brothers and sisters in arms.



The truth is, the cost of war is higher than gold and blood. It can also be counted in the lives of those who receive that dreaded letter, or telegraph, or personal call at any hour of the day or night.

“We’re sorry to inform you…”

One life is over, and another life must begin living with a memory where a loved one once had been.

If the cost is so high, why pay it?

This temporary cemetery would develop into the Normandy American Cemetery.  You can see just how close the cemetery was originally placed to the beach.  Taken 23 April, 1946, just after the war, and before any graves were moved or repatriated.  Photo Source:

This temporary cemetery would develop into the Normandy American Cemetery. You can see just how close the cemetery was originally placed to the beach. Taken 23 April, 1946, just after the war, and before any graves were moved or repatriated. Photo Source:

Because of the value of freedom.

As a historian, I’ve read so many accounts from all over the world and time from different people. The freedom to become something that isn’t dictated by the status of your parents, or your “class” or what you look like, or where you live is so amazingly unusual.

And the ability to do that, to be free to become something radically different from where you started, no matter where, is worth protecting.  So much so, that men and women still voluntarily chose to give up their civilian freedom to become a Soldier, Sailor, Airman, Coast Guardsman, or Marine.



As a country, we’re imperfect, because we’re made of imperfect people.

Thankfully, courage doesn’t rely on perfection.

Neither does love.

And neither does gratitude.

Freedom can get snuffed out in a generation, or even through an action, or inaction. Over the years of our history,  this country has put freedom to be who we can be as individuals living together to test after test. Those tests have stretched us, changed us, molded us, and even once, tore us apart.



One hundred and fifty years ago, the United States of America became divided. Over the next four years, the process of war killed more Americans than the previous wars.

The losses cut across state lines.

Class lines.

Racial lines.

Ethnic lines.

The losses were so staggering there was hardly a family who did not have a memory of a life cut short haunting them.


In the aftermath, there was one thing that unified nearly all American no matter where they came from or what they looked like:




It was a Reconstruction that was riddled with imperfections and even yes, injustices, but together we started with the one thing we could agree on: honoring our war dead as we had to move forward with only their memories.

Sometimes, in the safety and plenty here, we can forget it can vanish. We can forget that our freedom requires vigilance. It requires, at times, those who are willing to leave their homes and comforts behind and embrace the hardships of war. And some of those who make the sacrifice, sacrifice all.

And those left behind must rebuild.


Memorial Day used to be May 30, a day chosen, as the story goes, because all over the USA, flowers would be in bloom, allowing those who could, to honor their lost family members by decorating their graves, or their stones commemorating a lost grave, somewhere out there.


It turned into a three-day weekend in 1971, and unofficially became the start of summer.

But Memorial Day, born out of loss, was always meant to do three things:

  • Honor those who sacrificed all so we can live free.
  • Comfort those who continue to live and grow with memories where once there was a loved one.
  • Remind ourselves, and be grateful for the freedom we live under. Freedom that, at times, does require courageous people to choose hardship of war, or potential war, over comfort of home so that others will not have the war arrive at home.

Is it a time that we will gather with friends and family? Sure.

Is it a time we will open our grills and pools and laugh and enjoy some extra time together? Sure.

I don’t think any veteran would begrudge that. It’s part of what they chose to fight to protect.


For a moment, sometime this weekend, might I ask that we all pause and remember that freedom was hard to win, it’s difficult to maintain, and it’s impossible to guarantee without remembering how we got it in the first place, and what it cost on so many levels.

In 2000, the National Moment of Remembrance Act, signed by President Clinton, encourages all Americans to pause at 3p.m. local time on Memorial Day for a minute of silence to remember and honor those who have died in the service of our nation.

As a historian, may I also encourage you that if you know a veteran, and they are willing to talk about those who never made it home, ask for their stories, to keep these men and women alive.  It doesn’t have to be the story of how they didn’t return, but rather, who they were while they served together.

They deserve to be remembered.  And we, those of us who remain in our freedom in part because of them, need to remember, and remember to be grateful. Whatever our flaws as individuals, communities, and a nation, we still strive to preserve our freedom for ourselves, and our children.

The Distant and Lost Graves

And now for something completely different... | Posted by Rebekah
May 29 2010

On Memorial Day Weekend, I thought I would take an opportunity to honor the men and women who have given their lives so that the rest of us can live in freedom.  From the original soldiers and rebels of the Revolutionary war, all of whom faced a torturous death if the war had been lost and they had been captured and charged as traitors (talk about courage of conviction!) to our modern men and women on numerous bases all over the world, not only keeping us safe, but helping those in need, rebuilding in places where nature or man have destroyed, or all the other innumerable jobs the military does without complaint…

Thank You.

One of the hardest things that the families of the Navy had to face in wartime was the likelihood that if their loved one lost his life aboard his vessel, or his vessel was destroyed, that they would not ever have a grave to visit and remember them by.  Only a little less difficult were those whose sons (and now daughters too) served in conflicts abroad and might be laid to rest in those lands rather than the family plot.

Today, with modern embalming and refrigeration techniques, as many bodies as possible are returned to their families in the States.

But during WWII, that was often not possible.

In the Navy, if a ship or submarine was lost, any men lost with the vessel were lost at sea, sometimes, with no records on either side to record where that may be.  If someone died aboard a vessel during WWII, they were often buried at sea with military rites.  The body would be sewn into a canvas sack, weighted, and slid over the side of the vessel during a formal ceremony.  Even a submarine would pause when it was safest to take care of their lost brothers.  In May 1942, Mike Harbin became the first gunfire casualty of the Submarine Force aboard the USS Silversides.  A round hit him in the head and killed him instantly.  Silversides was battling it out with a small boat at the time, and two more men took Mike’s body inside with them.  After the battle, Silversides left he area submerged, and several hours later, after the body had been prepared, and the men changed into the most formal attire they had, the crew went onto the deck and held a Navy funeral for their crewmate, before sliding his body overboard.  They recorded the latitude and longitude in the deck log that day.  But his family would never be able to visit the grave.

Providing the coordinates were accurate, this is the location of the burial at sea for Mike Harbin of USS Silversides. Japan is the closest country over 750 miles away.

USS Cobia also lost a man to enemy gunfire in 1945, Seaman Huston Ralph Clark Jr., who was buried at sea. This photograph was taken during his funeral on February 27, 1945, just before his body was committed to the depths.

For the land-based military, the Marines, Army and Army Air Force (during WWII, what would eventually become the US Air Force was a part of the Army.  The Air Force would be organized as an independent branch in 1947), the casualties would often be quickly buried in temporary cemeteries erected near the battlefield.

Following the conclusion of the war, the search for a permanent memorial began.  There were serious objections to all the temporary graveyards hastily created all over the Pacific Basin, so a new cemetery was sought.  in 1948, the Government of the Philippines granted the US the right to construct a cemetery on the former site of Fort McKinley, just south west of Manila.  A lot of grading and landscaping began to create a peaceful resting place for those lost in the Pacific.

The Cemetery as it appears from the air. The Chapel and Semi-circles are clearly seen in the center, as are the radiating bands of burials. Like all American military cemeteries abroad, this land was gifted to the United States in perpetuity, and is not taxed or charged any fees of any kind. It is American sovereign soil.

The next of kin for each man whose remains could be recovered were given four options for the final resting place of those remains: repatriation to the US for burial in a private cemetery; repatriation to the US for burial in a national cemetery (such as Arlington); or burial in an American Military Cemetery abroad which would be kept in perpetuity; or leaving them where they were found.  The next of kin had until December 31, 1951 to make that decision.  Approximately 40% of families requested that their dead be buried in the new Manila American Cemetery and Memorial.

In the end, the Manila American Cemetery and Memorial covered 152 beautifully landscaped acres, and became the largest American cemetery outside the United States honoring WWII dead.  Its 17,100 headstones mark the graves of 17,206 men: 16,434 Americans and 570 Filipinos who were serving with the US Military.

13, 434 headstones mark the graves of a single, identified individual.

3,644 headstones identify the remains of a single unidentified individual (unknowns)

6 headstones mark the graves of a group of 28 men whose remains could not be separated into individuals

16 headstones mark the graves of a group of 100 men whose remains could not be separated into individuals.

But for those men buried at sea, lost with their vessels, or, for whatever reason, the resting place of their remains is known only to God, the cemetery erected a double semicircle structure called “The Tablets of the Missing” .  These immense tablets record the names of 36,285 men whose remains are lost or have not been identified.  (It is more than possible that some of the remains buried under the “Unknown” marker are listed on the Tablets.)  The names of the men of the Flier and Robalo would be engraved here.

A photograph of the "Tablets of the Missing". On the column on the right, near the top of the photo, you can see a dark dot on the name "Creighton, John", indicating that his remains have been discovered and identified. Photo taken from Google Earth's Panoramio Photos

In all, a symbol of 53,491 souls who gave all.

The last of the re-locations and burials took place in 1960, and the cemetery was dedicated on December 8, 1960, the 19th anniversary of the attack on Manila.  (The attack on Manila actually took place about eight hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor, but due to the International Date Line, it is recorded as happening on December 8, not December 7.)

Unlike a National Cemetery, where veterans and their families can be buried after a veteran’s passing whether he or she was on active duty or retired, died in the line of fire or of natural causes, the Manila Cemetery, like most of the military cemeteries abroad, is closed to further internments.  Family members of those buried there, or even those who fought alongside the men buried there cannot have their remains returned to Manila to rest with their comrades in arms.

That does not mean that there have not been burials and changes in the cemetery since 1960.

Any remains discovered in the Pacific theater and positively identified as belonging to an American military personnel from WWII are eligible for internment (though they are also eligible for repatriation to the states, just as if they had been found in WWII).

The Tablets of the Missing also have been slightly altered. Some of the names have a rosette attached to it, signifying that that serviceman’s remains have been found and his identity returned to him.

Many of these cemeteries became necessary starting with the Mexican-American war, the building of the Panama Canal, and the World Wars.  There are twenty-four of these world wide, all under the care of the American Battle Monuments Commission.

Starting with the Korean War, all remains of American military personnel were returned to America.

Rest in Peace.

Pamphlet about Manila American Cemetery and Memorial.

Frequently asked questions about Military Cemeteries abroad