Dello Russo was up next. Now due to whatever reason, his name was always listed in James D. Russo, in all the records. His last name was properly Dello Russo, but he wasn’t permitted to list that apparently. Thankfully, a sharp researcher in Grand Haven figured out his real last name, allowing us to track down his family in time for the memorial. As a youth, Dello Russo loved to swim to the various islands around the Boston area, which accounts for his ability to swim for the islands. In fact, he beat everyone to the shore, and was the only person to make it without hanging onto a floating piece of bracken for support.
But I digress.
Dello Russo’s testimony was brief. As Quartermaster, his job was the drive the submarine from the helm. Unlike a surface ship, which usually had windows in the room where the steering was done, a submarine is driven blind. The Quartermaster has to steer based on the angles of the gyroscope and a great deal of trust with the navigator and radar and sonar teams. All Dello Russo was essentially asked (beyond “Name, Rank, Station”) was where he was located that night. At the helm. In the Conning Tower. That was it.
Donald Tremaine was the last man up for questioning. I’ve always found Tremaine to be interesting if only because he is nearly a complete cipher. I’ve never been able to find out anything about him, outside of the fact that he was on the Flier and was assigned to the Maryland during the attack on Pearl Harbor. Anything and everything else is a complete matter of speculation, and when I tried to research him, I got a quick and painful research lesson in just how many “Don(ald) Tremaine”s live in the USA. But I don’t even have a photo of him, he was the only survivor in no condition to be photographed that day on the Redfin.
Tremaine was a Fire Controlman, which made him an essential part of maintaining, repairing and operating all weapons systems aboard Flier. Tremaine stated that the night Flier went down, he was in the Conning Tower as a part of the Radar Tracking Party in case they made contact. If I’ve done my research correctly, that means that he was likely standing at the TDC (Torpedo Data Computer-an analog computing system that helped submarines perform the trigonometry needed to aim torpedoes.) that night. And that was all.
Last up was Lt. Liddell. After Crowley, Liddell had the most on the line, since he could potentially be held responsible if he hadn’t navigated correctly and allowed Flier to stray into dangerous waters.
He was questioned closely, the investigators wanting to know when was the last fix taken by stars, landmarks, the last reading on the azimuth, how often did he take depth soundings, radar fixes, and on and on. Judging from his responses, he was a highly skilled navigator, and his skill stood the interrogation.
The strangest part of the tale is simply that when Liddlel and Crowley planned their route that evening, there were two reasons why they did not follow the Crevalle’s route precisely, when that was the route HQ sent them to help them safely transverse Balabac. The first was Crevalle was heading north, not west, which meant that Flier would have to take a wide arc out of their way to match her track precisely. But more importantly, Crevalle tracked very close to a pair of reefs, which were clearly shown on the map. That was too close for comfort for Crowley and Liddell, and they decided to put more distance between Flier and those reefs, which would have been easily mineable. Today’s charts, however, clearly show that the ocean floor drops steeply down near the reefs and comes up gradually near Comiran Island. Liddell and Crowley tried to keep her as safe as they could, but this time, her luck ran out.
The remaining portions of the investigation/trial are detailed, and interesting, but maybe only to me. There was a lot of questioning of Admiral Christie’s staff from this point forward, about intelligence gathering, known Japanese mines, how was information gathered and relayed to submarine COs, the risks of Natsubata Channel verses the other channels in the strait, on and on and on. They even covered the history of Robalo’s CO, and called in the temporary COs of Robalo and Flier (these men were the CO while the real COs were on R&R and who remained onboard during all of the training sessions prior to patrol departure to observe the training and the abilities of the crews) to inquire how the crew and CO worked together, and how prepared the crews of these lost boats might or might not have been.
The conclusions reached by the investigation was that Flier and Robalo both had been given the best information possible, but their loss was officially attributed to “the fortunes of war”. Both Admiral Christie and Commander Crowley were absolved of all fault regarding the loss of these boats and their crews, but Admiral Christie’s career had reached its zenith. Shortly after this investigation, for unknown reasons, he was assigned to a new post: overseeing the Naval Yard in Bremerton Washington. This sort of assignment was often given to admirals who were on their way to retirement, and despite the fact that four submarines (Flier, Robalo, Harder and USS Seawolf, sunk on 3 October in one of the few friendly fire incidents of WWII–carrying 17 Army Special Forces aboard) had been recently lost out of Fremantle, Christie had a good record of safety and support of his submarine crews.
It is possible that Christie simply got shuffled around in the normal rotation of things, but, while there are no written records, and no one willing to go on record, there were rumors that Christie may have been on the receiving end of some other admirals’ displeasure for the clean slate given to Christie and Crowley. It’s also interesting to note that Admiral Daubin, the presiding officer, was also shortly relieved of the command of Atlantic Submarines (at which he also had been doing a laudable job) and moved to oversee the Naval Yard at New York.
But now the Navy had to sit and wait. There were rumors of at least four survivors of the Robalo. Four men, Ensign Samuel Tucker, Signalman Wallace Martin, Quartermaster Floyd Laughlin, and Electrician’s Mate Mason Poston, had dropped a note from their Puerto Princesa prison cell on August 2, which had been smuggled out to the Allies. Their current whereabouts were unknown. There were also seven survivors of Flier who potentially could have swam to other islands and be living as castaways or captured. In addition, Flier was believed to be in 40-50 fathoms of water (240-300 feet of water). All submariners are trained to escape out of a disabled submarine at that depth, so if some of the Fliers had survived the crash into the seafloor and could reach the escape hatches, is was possible that more might surface after the war. There was no way to tell.
But the families were going to have to be told something…